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Here is a short list which does not claim to be exhaustive. In the first issue of the Art Access review was published, the first art review on Minitel At the time, all of them were in the sphere of visual and sound poetry Art Access review stopped after three years. Art Acces indirectly facilitated the development of French animated poetry and the creation of the first digital poetry review, alire, which we have already mentioned. Philippe Bootz met the poet Tibor Papp in ; from this meeting came the idea to create an electronic review on floppy disks, and to group together authors working on electronic text.

The L. Its first action was the effective realization of the alire review. The very first issue 0. This number is an object which contains programmed poems on diskettes, printed works on paper and a work of sound poetry on a video cassette. This was the first clear assertion in France that digital literature existed and that its only medium was the computer.

The review was identified in as the oldest review in the world which effectively diffused the programs of the works. It published the animated poetry created by the authors of L. E until , then it opened up, from alire6, to the works of digital literature of all genres created by French authors. It published foreign authors from alire8 It was the only review on digital poetry until In the 90s, Alire is particularly representative of the diverse approaches in digital poetry before the Web. In the s, the adventure of Alire coincided with that of a collective, Transitoire Observable.

As the years went by, the authors of alire acquired the conviction that programming was at the center of digital literature and that it was essential to look more closely at the new forms, specifically programmed ones, which it could produce. It also differentiates itself from software art, which asserts that the code of the program is the work.

For the actors of the Transitoire Observable collective, the multimedia event accessible to the reading, the only legible part of the work, the observable transitory , is only a passing and observable event of an active programmed process, its forms being produced by deeper programmed forms, sometimes even.

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In , the 12th issue of Alire was dedicated to the Observatoire collective dissolved in Some works were computerized to be presented on a digital medium. These publications also contained programmed works. Tapin is the BoXoN collective website. This review offers sound, visual and digital poems. Created in , it is still active in The review disappeared in Along with online reviews, numerous authors today have their personal website where they present their works.

Or the website of the artist Mouchette, who presents works inbetween literature and net art. Throughout the history of digital literature, these reviews—even though short-lived and unstable—as well as their actors played a federative role for the different communities in the field. After this focus on the filiations and the history of digital literature in France, let us focus on the question of the communities of this digital literature. Our project was to analyze an online review dedicated to digital literature as well as online literary reviews dealing with print literature.

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The point was not to set traditional literature against digital literature, both of which are actually closely linked online, but to study socio-technical devices which are centered on digital literature. This seemed relevant to us since the medium used by the actors is also the medium which is used by the authors of the works discussed. I analyzed in particular the online device e-critures, which includes a mailing list and a website.

By focusing on such a device, I was able to observe an emerging field in which the various actors try to position themselves. I managed to watch and study the process of the co-constitution of a technical device, a field and a community. The online device called e-critures consists of a mailing list discussion list and of a website.

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The discussion list, created in November , came first it has at present around members and more than messages have been posted since its creation. Elle regroupe des auteurs.

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Nobody can join without being accepted by the moderator whose role afterwards is however restricted since messages are freely posted. The diffusion of messages is always one-sided: from one to all the members of the list. The feeling of being a member of the list is directly related to the feeling of belonging to a group of trailblazers who choose to fight or not to fight for its own visibility.

The latest version, whose interface is more straightforward and sober, dates back to January From a methodological point of view, the study of the e-critures device consisted in an in-depth qualitative study with participation. By many aspects, the field of digital literature is still emerging. I considered that it was necessary to be part of a device which is a constituent part of the field, to really understand what was happening. As a result, I was of course aware of being also an actor of the field and of participating in its constitution.

Such a methodological choice consequently involved describing of my own practices. The methodological interest of such a device lies in its reflexive dimension: the actors of e-critures constantly question who they are and what they create.

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In return, the continuous evolution of the device constituted a difficulty for the study. The study of the e-critures device, of its specificities and its representativeness of a field of practices, also relied on the comparative study of another on-line device, Ecrits…vains? Even though the ecrits-vains. The comparison between the two devices, e-critures and Ecrits…vains? In the course of the study, the place of Ecrits…vains? Thus we exploited Ecrits…vains? A first answer lies in the editorial device set up by Ecrits…vains? This difference allows us to distinguish two different functions of the devices: whereas the first one looks for readers through a rigorous selection process of texts, the second aims to fit into a community of practices, a network of creators, a community of digital literature initiates.

The comparison of the technical and the editorial choices of both devices reveals the following differences cf. We can ask ourselves the following question: can the content and the layout of the documents and messages on the one hand and the features of the technical devices on the other hand, be the signature of a community of practice? What would be the signature of a community of practice dedicated to digital literature? Let us return to the e-critures device. To what extent may the constitution of such a community have influenced the creative practices, and even the literary forms?

On the e-critures list, the collective can play a role in the elaboration of the works. A work was even realized collectively: it is presented on the e-critures. Check your local Dymocks store for stock. Enter your postcode: Please enter a valid postcode. Please note that prices may vary between www. Sorry, an error occurred while checking availability. Please try again later. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus.

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