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However, as Erin Dunbar shows, French was also the vehicle to which playwrights resorted to avoid censorship and express resistance. Adding to the sonority, the resonances, the ambiguities, the plays on words and the nuances ingrained deep within an apparent discursive simplicity was the striking visual potency of the text, one which exacerbated the connections between the French soundscapes and the imagery of decadence.

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In this manner does the French language also come to represent for Victorians the mystery and secrecy of forbidden pleasures—it is the dialect of beauty, of sex, of death. Wilde makes voluptuousness and carnality out of the language; and as if delineating the naked body through its voice, he makes a voyeur out of the reader. For the Irish playwright, each and every French composer paled in comparison to the paradigmatic, illustrious Richard Wagner.

Valls contends that French composers failed to comply with the standards set by Shaw on the consideration of art as a teleological entity aimed at the social affirmation of the individual. For Shaw, all artistic creation had to serve a political end while at the same time translating an organic experience of life. The process of transposition—whether textual, corporeal or musical—involves an act of creativity that begets a new, distinctive work whose lineage is both shared and plural.

Yet it also confronted its opponents with due resistance, and rose as an emblem of technical expertise, social progress, and economic advancement. In short, it fleshed out modernity. Some creatures are considered as those who come from Heaven living in open sky.

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On the other hand, the Vietnamese think that other creatures can capture their thoughts, and out of fear and reprisals they pay respect to those creatures in order to escape their mortal traps. They dare not call it by its name despite its minuscule size. By its supernatural force the sparrow can escape from the trap and cause big damages by destroying their rice stocks. It is attributed to the tiger the aptitude of bearing on its shoulder the soul of its victim. It is the way to interpret the return of the tiger around the area where the victim was devoured in order to catch another prey. That is why it is very necessary to find at any costs what belongs to the victim, burn it together with a double made of paper and that of the tiger and bury them carefully in order to return the soul indefinitely into the tomb.

That is why in order to avoid the damages that may be caused by these whiskers, they decide to burn them immediately at the capture of this big cat. It is impossible to find a medicine to heal a wound caused by the unexpected contact with these tiny creatures. For most Vietnamese, the tiger is sometimes feared and revered. For fear of reprisals, they keep not only signs of respect but also temples and altars dedicated in its honor and scattered here and there in the forest.

Even before killing it after capturing it, they do not even forget to give it the last homage in holding a preliminary ceremony. They use to compare themselves with the tiger by means of the following maxim:. Despite that, the animal the most preferred remains the dragon. It is the emblematic animal traditionally chosen by the king on his clothes. It appears as a key element of the Vietnamese mythology. All Vietnamese strongly believe they are descendents of this fabulous and mythical animal. The unicorn is synonymous with happiness.

As for the turtle, it is not only the symbol of longevity but also that of the transfer of spiritual value in the Vietnamese tradition. Its presence has been mentioned many times in the history of Vietnam by means of legends. The phoenix always identifies with beauty. This mythical bird is often referred to in marriage.

It is a serpent resembling an eel, which has been described in P.

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To protect themselves against the water dragons, the Vietnamese used to tattoo their body so that they would not look different and be killed by these animals when they go fishing. The water dragon is also the subject of the following proverb:. It is not surprising to see in each village along the coast, springing up an altar dedicated for this mammal. The profound attachment to this cetacean from Vietnamese fishermen is due to a great number of blessings it brought them. Altar reserved for the whale. Poulo Cham. In Vietnam, attention is made to precursor of natural phenomena seen in the behavior of wild creatures.

Out of the roar of a tiger in search for food, the dry and staccato sound made by a deer or the squeal of a squirrel, a change of weather could be forecast incoming wind or rain from the north. Seeing the ants building their big earthen nests in a hurry in the trees along the riverside, it would be possible to predict that a rise in water level is imminent.


The unjustified song of a rooster predicts a bad news. The nibbling of mice in the house is not a good omen at all. The hooting of an owl near the house announces the imminent death of the sick if any in it. The drop of a spider from the ceiling is a mark of an infidelity in the household. The flight of a dragonfly on the ground level signals the imminent arrival of sunshine or rain. It is said in the following little saying:.

The dragonfly flying low brings rain Flying high gives sunshine, flying average height predicts shadow.

A scientific explanation can be provided to that saying because the dragonfly possesses a pouch of water enabling it to regulate the altitude of its flight in function with air humidity. It is the application of the Archimedean push in air that we find in this behavior. This superstition has been exploited in the past with ingenuity by a great number of Vietnamese leaders to consolidate their legitimacy in the conquest of power. It becomes a formidable and efficient weapon in the struggles against foreign invaders. It can be said that it was at the time what we have now with psychological warfare.

The credulity has been put in evidence several times in the history of Vietnam. For this moving, it was necessary to make people believe that he had seen in his dream a golden dragon flying over this locality. That would help him neutralize peacefully any ideas of contestation and revolt.

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Since his birth, the tiger was no longer seen in the area. This one, known by his courage and strength, having up until then led a hidden and reserved life with his mother in a remote corner of South Vietnam, did not hesitate to kill anyone who dared disturb him. His mother invited them for lunch but advised them go withdraw immediately because she knew well the character of her son. Seeing the strangers in his house, he would not hesitate to kill them. On his returning home, Le Van Duyet was annoyed by the presence of strangers in his home.

But he noticed hat the young man was surrounded by a snake whose head leaned on his chest.

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Troubled by this protection, he timidly asked his mother: Who is the person protected by the snake? Surprised by his question, she went to the room where Nguyen Anh was sleeping. She found no snake. For him there is no doubt that he was face to face with the person uncommon and under divine protection. He went to wake him up and asked him of the news.

Intrigued by this omen, he knelt at the front of his boat and called upon Heaven:. Effectively, the disappearance and reappearance of the reptiles took place three time at once. Witnessing this unusual phenomenon responding to his wish, he did not want to go.

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